Климакс у женщин


Климакс
– это процесс угасания репродуктивной функции в организме женщины. Это происходит из-за гормональных изменений чаще всего после 40 лет и продолжается на протяжении 10 лет

Характеризуется постепенным прекращением менструального цикла. 

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Фазы менопаузы

В первую фазу, перед наступлением менопаузы характерен сбой менструального цикла и его продолжительность. Во вторую фазу, постменопаузу, прекращается менструальный цикл и происходит угасание гормональной активности яичников.

Причины климакса

В человеческом организме все процессы взаимосвязаны, к 40-45 годам, когда запас «рождающих» яйцеклеток заканчивается, менструальный цикл прекращается, и женщина больше не имеет возможность забеременеть и родить детей. Протекать климакс может по-разному. 

На тяжесть протекания оказывают влияние стрессовые ситуации, психоэмоциональные нарушения, хронические заболевание, нарушения в сексуальной жизни.

Симптомы климакса:

  • Дисфункциональные маточные кровотечения. Они могут быть нерегулярными и отличаться своей продолжительностью; 
  • Эндокринные расстройства; 
  • Вегето-сосудистые расстройства; 
  • Раздражительность; 
  • Повышенная сухость кожи; 
  • Нарушения сна; 
  • Частое мочеиспускание; 
  • Учащенное сердцебиение; 
  • Приливы жара; 
  • Головокружение; 
  • Потливость и т.д. 

Диагностика климакса

Чаще всего симптомы климакса проявляются очень характерно, поэтому диагностировать его несложно

Но осложнить диагностику могут заболевания, которые протекают одновременно с климаксом. Например, это могут быть соматические заболевания. В таких случаях врачи чаще всего проводят гистологическое исследование соскоба слизистой оболочки матки и кольпоцитологическое исследование влагалищных мазков.

Лечение и профилактика климакса

Учеными давно доказано, что наследственный фактор в этом вопросе играет не последнюю роль. 

Статистически доказано, что яркость проявления симптомов при климаксе напрямую зависит от образа жизни женщины, состояния ее организма и социального статуса.

В период лечения климакса желательно отказаться от курения, спиртных напитков, заняться утренней гимнастикой, закаливанием, следить за своим питанием (уменьшить количество потребляемых жиров и углеводов). В качестве медикаментозного лечения врач может назначить седативные препараты, бета-блокаторы, гипотензивные средства. Подбор медикаментозных препаратов, как и само лечение должны проходить под строгим контролем врача.

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